There is a growing imbalance between supply and demand of the major cereals, viz., wheat, rice and maize, which together provide 70 % of the calorifi c intake for the world’s population. Whilst in recent years, genetic and agronomic developments have steadily increased the production of these crops, the rate of increase is still less than that needed to match the requisite demand. This has caused price volatility and fuelled concerns over long-term food security. The demand for cereals is increasing in response to increased population and wealth. However, the loss of land for crop production due to urbanisation, degradation and alternate uses (e.g. for bioenergy crops or leisure) and the projected changes in climate are major obstacles against further increases in production.