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Safflower: a salt-tolerant oil crop for the arid environments

AMEMBER of the thistle family (Compositae/‎ Asteraceae), Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.‎) is a multi-purpose salt-tolerant crop grown in various parts of the world.‎ Its origin is believed to be in the Levant where it was domesticated more than 4,000 years ago.‎ Safflower is an annual herbaceous bush with many branches that terminate in the capitulum (the flower head), which is surrounded by stiff bracts.‎ Its composite flower head includes 20-180 florets and has different colors (white, yellow or orange).‎ Following germination, the seedling produces a circular arrangement of leaves called a rosette.‎ After one month approximately the central main stem emerges.‎ The stem may grow to maximum length (30-150 cm) at the time of flowering.‎ Both stems and branches have leaves which generally possess numerous hard spines that deter animals such as goats, sheep and camels to graze on plants.‎ Safflower produces white seed which is four sided and has a thick and smooth hull (pericarp).‎ The average seed length is 6-7 mm and the average seed weight is 40 mg.‎ The plant has a long taproot system that can grow to 2-4 m deep in the soil.‎

Authors: 
Shahid M.‎, Jaradat A.‎, Rao N.‎ K.‎
Year: 
۲۰۱۲
Publication type: 
Scientific Paper
Publication Source: 
Biosalinity News
Volume/Chapter/Issue: 
۱۳
Page Number: 
٦-۷