Global expansion of quinoa and challenges for the Andean region
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) is an Andean grain crop recognized as an ally for global food security due to its high nutritional value. However, quinoa globalization entails challenges to the countries of origin. Farmers face a scenario of new concerns and competitors. In 2018, quinoa was present for research and production in 123 countries. Although 74% of global exports are still supplied by Peru and Bolivia, production outside the Andes is increasing. In addition, producer prices collapsed in 2015 while yields remained unstable, averaging 0.4–1.1 t ha−1. Understanding the reality of the new quinoa situation is fundamental to face the challenges of encouraging local biodiversity, promoting market diversification and cooperating with inclusive processes towards equitable benefits.