This paper considers how salt and drought tolerant C;/C4 arid/semiarid plants in pure or mixed stands can control salinity, improve rangelands productivity and reverse desertification in Central Asian arid and semiarid zones. Spatial distribution of C3/C4 photosynthetic types within different desert vegetation plant communities differs by seasons and along the soil salinity gradient The ratio of C3:C4 species was represented as 10:1, 10:2 and 10:9 for xero-, xerohalo-, haloxerophyte plant communities from non-saline to saline habitats, respectively. During summer season insignificantly increased values ofC4 species (in 1.5-3.7 times) were found for investigated plant communities. More than 90% of biomass proportion of xerophyte plant community is represented by C3 species. The total productivity ofxerohalophyte plant community is 1000 kg/ha of which 15% belongs to c3 species and 85% to c4 species. The productivity of haloxerophyte plant community is determined by C4 species, which consists of 87% of total biomass. From spring to autumn a decreasing trend of biomass of C3 and increasing of C4 plants in the vegetation cover of desert rangelands was revealed Optimal spatial combination of CiC4 plants by considering their phenological rhythms and mechanisms of adaptation to drought cycles and soil salinity guarantees high plant survival and biomass accumulation on salt affected rangelands. Coexistence of CiC4 species under wide range of salinization combined with limited content of water in the soil was considered as the essential factor in the elaboration of optimal landscape planning and rehabilitation techniques of degraded rangelands affected by salinity.