Soil salinity is a major global issue due to its adverse impact on the environment, agro-ecosystems, agricultural productivity and sustainability. Saline soils are significant as formations of ecosystem on the earth affected by high concentrations of soluble salts, and as means of crop production with little economic value. Threats being the water scarcity, drought, degradation of surface and groundwater quality leading to soil salinization. Many plants either fail to grow in saline soils or their growth is retarded significantly. However, few plants grow well on saline soils; therefore, soil salinity often restricts options for cropping in a given area. Therefore, temporal understanding of soil salinity through mapping and monitoring helps understand subtle difference across the landscape and agricultural fields, and allows their precise management. Mapping on regional and national levels is appropriate to be accomplished through interpretation of Remote Sensing Imagery supplemented with limited ground truthing, and through using Geographic Information System salinity maps can be developed, however, at farm level or irrigated fields more intensive salinity assessment and monitoring is required. Under such conditions, salinity is measured using a set of equipment, such as through routine (EC meter, salinity bridge through salinity sensors) and modern equipment (EC Probe, EM38 and automated salinity logging though salinity sensors). The choice of the technique depends upon the purpose, size of the area, soil depth, and frequency of measurement, accuracy required and the available resources. In this keynote paper various techniques of salinity assessment, mapping and monitoring will be presented and experience from Arid regions (case studies) will be shared with conference participants.