We summarize the predicted effects of flower and fruit adaptive traits on the genetic structure of some annual and perennial species of Asiatic Sa/sola populations in harsh desert environments. Results show that the Asiatic Sa/sola complex is an example of evolutionary convergence of ecological, structural, and physiological mechanis1ns, which are determined genetically. Phenotypic plasticity in the sexual expression of flower organs affects interspecies and intrapopulation genetic structure both for annual and perennial species. Fruit diversity in the form and color of wings, structure of columns, presence, shape and spatial arrangement of the papillous protuberances, numbers of collenchymatous layers, degree of sclerification and parenchymatization determine seed dispersal and plant survival. Availability of pigments, tracheid-like moisture holding cells, and abundance of crystals in the perianth tisues also promote the protection of the embryo from unfavorable desert environments. Wings or fruit tepals determine anemochorous seed dispersion into open pastures spaces. Micro-morphology of epicuticular secretion and presence of crystals in the pericarp may play a role in changing soil pH, and providing more favorable conditions for plant survival. Salt gland secretion products on the surface of fruit tepals and perianth might protect reproductive organs and provide a strategy for germplasm conservation. Small and isolated populations of the majority of the annual species with a predominantly wind-crossed mode of reproduction exhibit low levels of genetic variation and in return the ability of plants to adapt to frequent droughts and climate changing conditions. Appropriate conservation and sustainable utilization measures are suggested to protect natural habitats of Salsola species.